Everglade Plants and Animals













The Everglades was originally a sea of grass with water flowing slowly from Lake Okeechobee to Florida Bay. This flow was 100 miles long and 50 miles and creeps across the sawgrass prairie.

Many unique plants and animals live in this lazy river, tall grass prairies, shadowy forests, and salty waters. We hope you enjoy learning some interesting tidbits about this exclusive and exceptional environment.

So you Want to Know More About... Plants and Animals of the Everglades

The Everglades is home to a vast array of plants and animals that have adapted to a wet, subtropical environment.

Some creatures such as the Florida panther, wood stork and West Indian manatee have become symbols of a struggling ecosystem.

Other parts of this vast mosaic - most notably the sawgrass marshes, and cypress and mangrove forests - are recognized around the world as images of the region.

While some of its flora and fauna are widely recognized, the Everglades also is comprised of many hundreds, if not thousands, of lesser-known plants, animals and fish that are part of a living, dynamic ecosystem.

River of Grass

River of Grass includes wetlands plants, trees and marsh vegetation; invertebrates, fresh and saltwater fish, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds.

Some 68 species are on the federal threatened or endangered lists.

Many more are rare, species of special concern, or included on state lists. A brief overview of selected Everglades' plant and animal species follows:

Plants - Marsh Species

The Everglades is comprised of more than 100 marsh species that live in water all or much of the year.

Its most well-known wetland plant is sawgrass, a normally hearty grass-like species that has formed thousands of acres of marshes.

Floating aquatic plants that dominate the waterscape include bladderwort, white water lily, spatterdock and maidencane.

Tree Island and Hammock Species

In addition to aquatic ones, other plants in the Everglades live in wetland tree islands and upland hardwood hammocks that dot the landscape.

Tree islands 

Tree islands are small forests of trees and shrubs that have adapted to a wet environment.

They provide an important home to the many mammals that live in the Everglades and are a site for wading and migratory bird rookeries.

Tree islands generally are named after the trees that dominate them, with the most common the bay, willow and cypress.

Cypress is probably the most recognized tree in the Everglades

and includes the dwarf and bald species. Cypresses require water to develop, and then can live on either dry land or in water as mature trees.

They have unusual root systems producing "knees" that grow out of the earth which scientists think are used for breathing.

Cypress trees shed their leaves in the fall - somewhat unusual in a subtropical environment. Another interesting tree found in the islands is the pond apple, which produces large, bitter, yellow-green fruit. Pond apples are a food source for some animals.

Trees also exist in the Everglades in hammocks,

which are localized, mature hardwood forests.

Unlike the tree islands that are dominated by wetland species, hammocks can have trees that traditionally live in drier conditions such as oak and pine.

Royal palm, cabbage palm, live oak, gumbo limbo and West Indian mahogany are some trees that live in these tropical hardwood hammocks.

Orchids, Bromeliads and Ferns

Within the tree islands and hammocks, visitors can find breathtaking orchids, Bromeliads and ferns.

The warm, humid environment is ideal for air plants, with some of the world's most unusual and beautiful orchids found in the Everglades.

Many species of tropical ferns also thrive in this environment, often found under shade trees and covering the forest floor.


A keystone plant community of the Everglades, the mangrove is a coastal plant that is known for its vast root system.

Mangroves provide an interface between more saline coastal waters and the freshwater marshes; help reduce soil erosion and buffer the land from wind and waves; and build the soil through their growth and decomposition.

Mangroves do not tolerate cold weather and are protected by law.

Animals - Birds

Birds are a special symbol of the Everglades, captured beautifully in the paintings of John James Audubon.

It is reported that in the 1800s there were so many migratory and wading birds that their numbers darkened the skies.

Unfortunately, the wading and migratory bird population has been greatly reduced, first by hunters and more recently by the loss of habitat.

Despite this, today some 350 bird species have been identified in Everglades National Park alone.

Some are year-round residents; other just visit for the winter; and still others stop by on their journey to more southern destinations.

The most notable of the wading birds includes the Wood Stork; White and Glossy Ibises; Roseate Spoonbill; Great Blue, Great White and Tricolored Herons; and Snowy and Great Egrets.

The endangered Snail Kite is an unusual bird in that it survives exclusively on the apple snail.

The Cape Sable Seaside Sparrow also is in the news today, as scientists and government regulators strive to preserve its quickly dwindling habitat.

Land Mammals

Many animals live in the Everglades including the raccoon, skunk, opossum, bobcat, and white-tail deer.

But the poster-child of the Everglades and the symbol of this wild, vast ecosystem is the Florida panther.

It is the most endangered species in the Everglades, with only about 100 remaining in the wild.

Panthers feed on deer and other mammals, live in uplands Everglades areas, and require large ranges.

Great lengths are under way to save the panther including radio-tracking collared individuals and introducing other panther strains to increase the gene pool.

Other Animals

Another keystone species of the ecosystem and an indicator of its health is the American alligator.

This ancient reptile builds "alligator holes" that provide an important food and water source for many other animals in times of drought.

Two other well-known animals in the ecosystem include the friendly West Indian manatee and bottlenose dolphin, both of which live in saltwater bays and coastal areas.

In 1999, the United States Fish and Wildlife Service approved a Multi-Species Recovery Plan for the Threatened and Endangered Species of South Florida.

This plan outlines a detailed program to protect the endangered and threatened plants and animals of the South Florida ecosystem that includes the Everglades. It provides a detailed list of rare, threatened, endangered and special concern species.

To learn more, log on to: Vero Beach More information on the wildlife of the Everglades can be found in The Everglades Handbook: Understanding the Ecosystem by Thomas E. Lodge, published by the St. Lucie Press in 1998.

Everglades Frontier

Click any of the Stories below
 And Travel to Florida's Magnificent Everglades.

Florida's Magnificent Everglades - A small group of visitors clusters at the edge of a pond behind the Shark Valley Visitor Center in Everglades National Park. Two minutes of visiting the Everglades and the first gator had already been spotted. Try spotting a bear that fast in Yellowstone.

"CRACKER" The term stems from the early days when Florida cowboy cow cavalrymen, in lieu of the rope used by Texas cowboys, welded a bullwhip, 10 - 12 feet long made of braided leather, and when snapped over a cow's head, made a sharp"crack".
Thus was born the term "cracker"

Romancing the Swamp Local eco-tour provider wades into the Florida wild. Scared of the swamp? Intrigued by the swamp? Then explore the swamp. It will forever change you.

"Square Grouper" - Historic Everglades City 

The Hidden History of Everglades City as Florida's last frontier

Everglades City Florida Was The Square Grouper Capital at one time in the recent past.

In the 1970's and 1980's, Everglades City and Chokoloskee became notorious for their trade in "square grouper", a euphemism for bales of marijuana.

Everglades Stories - We’re trying to find ways to restore wetlands and to do it in a way that will really benefit the water quality when it finally does leave the land and also to store the water there and not sort of pipeline it straight into Lake Okeechobee and pipeline it into the everglades.

The Square Grouper - Through the Everglades to a shore about 20 miles to the west of Flamingo, called Cape Sable.and was said to have a pink beach literally made from shells, and also was habitat to the rare and elusive Cape Sable Sparrow, which we all wanted to see.

The Calusa Shell IndiansThe Calusa (kah LOOS ah) lived on the sandy shores of the southwest coast of Florida. These Indians controlled most of south Florida.

The population of this tribe may have reached as many as 50,000 people.

The Calusa men were tall and well built with long hair. Calusa means "fierce people," and they were described as a fierce, war-like people.

The Seminole Tribe of Florida The Seminole people are the descendents of the Creek people. The diversity of the Tribe is reflected in the fact that its members spoke seven languages- Muscogee, Hitchiti, Koasati, Alabama, 

Return to the Top